The Surabaya Integrated Transport Network Planning Project has produced
planning, demographic and economic forecasts for the study area from
which travel demand forecasts by travel mode have been derived.  From the
evaluation of these travel forecasts it was concluded that the continuation of
existing transport investment policies which have concentrated on highway
infrastructure is unsustainable, since it would require the investment of more
than 4 Billion US dollars to provide the necessary infrastructure to meet  the
demands of private car and motor cycle traffic by the year 2010.  Apart from
the high costs of such a highway investment programme, the
implementation of such schemes would imply the need for widespread
demolition of existing properties throughout the city, in order to achieve the
required rights of way.  In addition the increased levels of private traffic
would greatly increase existing levels of atmospheric pollution which are
already in excess of acceptable standards in many areas of the city.

Alternative transport policies have therefore been investigated involving the
restraint of private car traffic and the provision of a much improved
public transport system, including improved bus services as well as the
provision of almost
40 km of new fully segregated Mass Transit
on three routes.  These would involve the development of:

  • Two Light Rail based Mass Transit routes, one of 18.9 km north-
    south and the other is 11.6 km east-west, each passing through the
    centre of the city,
  • A Segregated 9.2 km Busway on an east-west alignment to the
    north of the city centre, running towards Gresik.  The mass transit
    facilities would be provided in addition to the upgrading of the existing
    Surabaya-Sidoarjo railway tracks, on which it is proposed to operate
    new suburban commuter rail services over a 26 km, route.

While restraint in the use of private cars will significantly reduce the need for
additional roadspace, the achievement of balanced public and private
transport networks will imply a continuing need for more modest road
network development including the provision of a number of new schemes
to remove existing problems and bottlenecks and thus maximise the use of
the existing road network including currently committed schemes and
improvements.  Such schemes have also been developed as part of the
SITNP integrated transport network proposals. It should however be noted
that the effective use of these facilities will be heavily dependent on the
availability of good quality feeder services, since the mass transit services
are only to be provided on a relatively limited network comprising some 40
route kms.


From the completed study it was concluded that continued attempts to keep
pace with the increasing demands for the use of private vehicles through
further widespread road construction were unsustainable.

Instead, it was recommended that a policy of travel demand management be
implemented through the application of a range of traffic restraint measures
in combination with major improvements in the level and quality of public
transport provision and operation.

Through the application of such a policy, the increased demand for public
transport would justify the provision of a limited network of segregated mass
transit facilities comprising some 31 km. of Light Rail Transit and 9 km. of
Segregated Busway in combination with significant improvements to all
purpose bus service provision through the use of more better quality buses
and services  on both existing routes and new feeder routes to support the
Mass Transit system

The Mass Transit proposals can be justified in economic terms, but cannot
be self financing because of the need to keep fares within the range of
peoples ability to pay. However, it is expected that service supply and
operation costs can be covered from the fare box, meaning the Government
at both local and central levels should be involved in the provision of public
transport infrastructure to support the optimum overall transport policy

There will be a continueing need for a program of more limited highway
expenditure, to optimise the use  and effectiveness of the existing network,
through improvements in connectivity and the removal of existing
bottlenecks through a combination of limited new construction and trafic
management measures.
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Multi Modal Transport Planning Experience
Surabaya Integrated Transport Network Planning
Project (SITNP)
The World Bank (Funding Agency)
DGLT (Executing Agency)
PT. Pamintori Cipta
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